Only the walls of former camp and civilian settlement are still visible to visitors today.The first official mention of the city itself is from 1415, as it was written in the charter issued by Dubrovnik to Holy Roman Emperor Sigismund, although there are numerous artefacts and objects that have been found (the National Museum of Bosnia/Herzegovina in Sarajevo and the Regional Museum in Doboj) and which confirm the fact that the area had been inhabited ever since the early Stone Age, and that the Roman Empire had an army camp (Castrum) and a settlement (Canabea) in the vicinity of the town dating from the 1st century AD.
It was expanded again during the Ottoman Empire in 1490.
This newer stone foundation of the fortress was built on previous layers of older foundation (dating to the 9th or 10th centuries) made of wood, mud and clay (Motte and Bailey type).
Archeological findings from the paleolithic era were found in the cave at the Vila suburb.
The Illyrian tribe of Daesitates settled in this region as early as the 12th century BCE.
The city was an important stronghold for permanently stationed Ustasha and Domobran garrisons with smaller German units serving as liaison and in defense of important roads and railroads.
Waffen SS "Handschar" division was partly mobilized from the local population and participated in battles around Doboj in the summer and the fall of 1944.
Most of the interned from Bosnia were whole families from the border regions of eastern Bosnia and Herzegovina.
It is said that 5,000 families alone were uprooted from the Sarajevo district in eastern Bosnia along the border with the Kingdoms of Serbia & Montenegro.
It was a very important obstacle for invaders coming from the north, Hungarians, and later on, Austrians and Germans.
It was built in the Gotho-Roman style with Gothic towers and Romanesque windows.
During this time, the Ustaša fascist regime, a puppet state of Nazi Germany, purged many pro-Partizan civilians, including Bosniaks, Serbs, Jews and Roma to concentration and labor camps.