, between 16 known as Frederikshald, is both a town and a municipality in Østfold county, Norway.The municipality borders Sarpsborg to the northwest, Rakkestad to the north and Aremark to the east, as well as the Swedish municipalities Strömstad, Tanum and Dals-Ed respectively to the southwest, south and southeast.
The seat of the municipality, Halden is a border town located at the mouth of Tista River on the Iddefjord, the southernmost border crossing between Norway and Sweden.
The town of Halden is located about 120 km (75 mi) south of Oslo, 190 km (120 mi) north of Gothenburg, and 12 km (7.5 mi) east of the border crossing at Svinesund.
The buildings have their oldest origins of the late 1600s, but were largely built during the last half of the 1700s.
The main building contains authentic furnishings including period furniture, hunting trophies, an extensive collection of art and a large weapons collection.
This ensures a steady influx of international guest scientists to the city.
The fact that Norway has no commercial interest in nuclear power ensures that Halden is viewed internationally as a neutral location.In the late 1960s, the most powerful mainframe computer in Norway at the time was located at the Institute for Energy Technology's facilities in Halden.From the 1960s-1980s, Halden was infamous for high levels of industrial pollution, largely originating from the Norske Skog Saugbrugs paper mill (part of Norske Skog since 1989).As a reference to the town's citizens burning their own houses to prevent them being taken on 4 July 1716 by the forces of King Charles XII of Sweden, Halden is one of only two cities in Norway's national anthem.In 1718, the Great Northern War ended when Charles XII was shot and killed at the Fredriksten fortress.This new laboratory building houses the most recent incarnations of the Halden Man-Machine Laboratory (HAMMLAB) and Halden Virtual Reality Centre's (HVRC) VR laboratory.